Villiers de l’Isle-Adam’s Tomorrow’s Eve, though, offers an interesting twist to that memory. The main character in that novel is Thomas Edison, not quite our Thomas Edison but a simulation of the inventor. His invention of the phonograph changes things quite a bit. Before the phonograph there were, of course, machines that played musical pieces, such as music boxes and street organs. But unlike the previous representation technologies, which were mainly graphic (writing and image) and which required a certain mental processing on the part of the reader (a mediation, an interpretation or translation), the phonograph’s voice reproduction sensibly reduces that processing, creating a semblance of unmediated presence. Moreover, sound reproduction introduces something quite unheard of, so to speak: for the first time, the listener witnesses an event that takes place and unfolds in time. In contrast to a graphic representation, we have the actual duration of the original event reproduced. It is not surprising, by the way, to see talking heads—simulacra of human heads that supposedly communicated with the dead—appear in theaters and sideshows during that period.